ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY

ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY

1. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
Pollution may be defined as the excessive discharge or addition of undesirable substances into the environment. A pollutant may be defined as an unwanted or undesirable substance added to environment.

TYPES OF POLLUTANTS

Pollutants can be classified in two different ways as follows:
(a) Primary pollutants are those which after their formation enter the environment and remain as such.
(b) Secondary pollutants are those harmful materials which are formed by chemical reactions between the primary pollutants in the atmosphere or hydrosphere.

BIODEGRADABLE AND NON BIODEGRADABLE POLLUTANTS

(a) Biodegradable pollutants are materials such as domestic sewage, cow-dung etc. which are easily decomposed by the microorganisms either by the nature itself or by suitable treatment and thus are not harmful but if these are present in excess in the environment they do not undergo degradation completely and thus pollutants.
(b) Non-biodegradable pollutants are materials such as mercury, aluminium, DDT etc. which do not undergo degradation or degrade very slowly but their presence even in very small amounts in the environment is very harmful for the humans as well as plants. They may react with other compounds present in the environment and produce even more toxic compounds.

2. ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION
Atmospheric pollution may be defined as the excessive discharge of undesirable foreign substances into the atmospheric air

GASES WHICH FREELY MIX WITH AIR, WITHOUT SETTLING DOWN

These gases are:

(i) Sulphur dioxide (SO2). Main contributors of emissions of SO2 are thermal power plants, in which sulphurcontaining coal and diesel are burnt.
(ii) Sulphur trioxide (SO3) is formed by the oxidation of sulphur dioxide under the influence of sunlight.

2SO2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2SO3 (g)

(iii) Hydrogen sulphide enters the decomposition of sewage water or organic matter, and from various industries. It is more poisonous than carbon monoxide and blackens lead paints and causes corrosion of metals.

(iv) Oxides of Nitrogen. The dry air at sea level contains nearly 78% nitrogen and 20% oxygen by volume. However, these gases do not react with each other at ambient temperature. They combine only at high temperatures (> 1210ºC) to form significant quantities of nitrogen oxide (nitric oxide, NO).

(v) Carbon monoxide (CO) is released by the partial combustion of fuels in automobiles, industries and oilrefineries.

(vi) Carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere by burning of fuels such as coal, wood and petroleum products.

(vii) Hydrogen fluoride is discharged from phosphate fertilizer industry, aluminium industry, metallurgical processes and brick-kiln

(viii) Hydrocarbons. High concentration (5,000–10,000 ppm) of hydrocarbons effects lungs and cause swelling when they enter the lungs

PARTICULATE
Particulates are the tiny solid or liquid particles suspended in air. Some important particulate pollutants are:
(i) Dust. Dust consists of fine particles produced during crushing, grinding and attrition of solid materials.
(ii) Smoke is composed of tiny particles of carbon, ash, oil etc. The major sources of smoke emissions are locomotives, domestic wood, coal-grates, industrial power plants, open fires, refuge incinerators, automobile engines, furnaces etc

(iii) Mists are produced by particles of spray liquids and condensation of vapours in air.
(iv) Fumes are condensed vapours. Fumes of metals like mercury, cadmium etc, are well known particulates.
(v) Smog is a mixture of smoke and fog in suspended droplet form.

Effects of impurities in water

Suspended ImpuritiesTheir Effects
1. Suspended mater
2. Bacterias
3. Parasitic worms
4. Viruses
5. Algae
Water is murky and not
acceptable.
Cause cholera, dysentery,
typhoid, etc.
Cause round-worm, and hookworm infections.
Cause enteroviral infections.
Cause turbidity, foul odour and
interfere with filtration in the
water treatment plants.
Dissolved ImpuritiesTheir Effects

1. Hardness
2. Sulphates
3. Sodium carbonate and
bicarbonate
4. Fluorides
5. Sodium chloride
6. Iron and manganese

7. Lead
(may came from lead
water pipes)
8. Mercury compounds
9. Zinc
10. Arsenic
11. Anionic detergents
(e.g., alkyl benzene
sulphonate)
12. Phosphates (from
fertilizers)
13. Polychlorinated
biphenyls (PCBs)

Laxative effect and corrosion.
Highly sulphonated water
containing Na+ , K+ and Mg+
ions

cause diarrhea.
Alkalinity
Above 1 mg/L cause fluorosis,
rotting of teeth-enamel; nervous
and skeleton disorders.

Indicates water pollution by
human sewage. High chloride
content imparts bad taste to water.
Stain fabrics during washing,
cause bad taste &odour, modify
colours in dyeing. Mn causes
paralysis lower limbs.
A cumulative poison, causing loss
of appetite, constipation,
abdominal pain, mental
retardation, and finally, nervous
disorder and brain damages.
Concentration in fish on ingestion
may cause nervous and brain
damage and paralysis, followed
by death.
Higher level causes dizziness,
vomiting and diarrhea.
Very poisonous, can cause
cramps, paralysis, and even death
Foaming (in turbulent water),
which interferes with selfpurification of water in lakes and
rivers.

Promotes algae growth, which
later decays and pollutes the
water. Skin disorders in humans,
carcinogenic.

4. LAND POLLUTION
The unfavorable alteration of soil by addition or removal of
 substances and factors which decrease soil productivity and
 adversely affects the quality of plant and animal life is called
 soil or land pollution

(i) Insecticides are chemical substances used for the control of insects to curb disease (e.g., malaria, yellow fever etc.) and protect crops.
(ii) Herbicides are used to kill weeds. Sodium chlorate, NaClO3 and sodium arsenite, Na3AsO3 were commonly used as herbicides in the first half of 20th century.
(iii) Fungicides are used to counter the growth of fungi. Fungi are plants without chlorophyll.

5. STRATEGY FOR CONTROL OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
The Management of Waste

The production and improper disposal of waste are causes for a great deal of environmental pollution.

Recycling
When materials are recycled, there are several benefits, apartfrom saving on the cost of raw materials, waste disposalcosts are reduced.

Sewage Treatment
Sewage is the liquid waste which includes human and household waste waters, industrial wastes, ground wastes, street washings and storm waters.

ABOUT US

NERAM classroom is Tamil nadu’s one of the top NATA and JEE coaching center which made great change in students especially from small towns. Started in 2017,and successfully we have alumni who have been placed under top institutes such as NIT ,SPA ,AU and some other good institutes under Anna universities. NERAM classroom offers highly personalised and effective learning programs for aspirants of competitive exams like JEE, NATA etc . NERAM classroom has become one of the most preferred education platforms across India.

 

WHY WE ARE INCOMPATIBLE ?

Our niche is creating personalised learning experiences for every type of learner. NERAM breaks away from a typical classroom teaching structure and uses technology and customisation to enable students to interact with their tutors.In India, students often feel too shy to clarify their doubts in a crowded coaching class. Many students travel long hours to get to class. NERAM breaks these shackles by liberating learning and teaching from the limits of location.Students are given full freedom to interact with teachers,experts and alumni as per their convenient time.

 

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Traditionally, students rely on brick-and-mortar coaching centers, but companies like NERAM classroom are springing up and more students are supplementing offline courses with online tutoring.
NERAM classroom is an incredibly personalized tutoring platform for you, while you are staying at your home. We have grown leaps and bounds to be the best Online Tuition Website in India with immensely talented Master Teachers, from the most reputed institutions. We provide you year-long structured coaching classes for JEE and NATA entrance exam preparation at affordable tuition fees, with an exclusive session for clearing doubts, ensuring that neither you nor the topics remain unattended. Revision notes and formula sheets are shared with you, for grasping the toughest concepts. Assignments, Regular Homeworks, Subjective & Objective Tests promote your regular practice of the topics.

 

PERSONALISED LEARNING AND TUTORING

Traditionally, students rely on brick-and-mortar coaching centers, but companies like NERAM classroom are springing up and more students are supplementing offline courses with online tutoring.
Personalised Learning is the foundation of our unique programs for students. Using knowledge graphs, the program adapts and creates personalised learning journeys for students.Based on the student's progress, personal learning profiles are created which help analyse strengths and areas of improvement. Each concept gets tagged at different levels of difficulty to create a smooth learning curve which keeps students motivated through any new learning challenge. Whenever errors are made, motivating remedial methods are generated to strengthen and improve the student's learning experience.

 

TECHNOLOGY ENABLED LEARNING

At NERAM, we leverage technology to merge best practices like use of well verified study materials, videos, engaging content and quizzes with the best teachers so that every student across India has access to the best learning and guidance for their future .

KEY FEATURES OF NERAM CLASSROOM

  • INTERACTIVE LEARNING SESSIONS
  • NUMBER OF MOCK TESTS
  • FRIENDLY GUIDE
 

BEST TEACHERS & ENGAGING CONTENT

NERAM classroom Learning Programs provide students a holistic learning experience. Students across regions can access the best teachers.Very few teams like BYJU’S, VEDANTA in India have a great sense for the education sector as well as how technology can be used for effective scaling, NERAM is one such team.
Hours and Hours of Study with no fun, is a bad idea for you, foreseeing the long run. To ensure that motivation is stirred in the best proportion for your clear understanding, a good number of quizzes and Objective tests are organized to impart knowledge. FREE Sample Papers and Important questions are extracted, solved and discussed, ensuring that you are 100% prepared before any exam.
Hours and Hours of Study with no fun, is a bad idea for you, foreseeing the long run. To ensure that motivation is stirred in the best proportion for your clear understanding, a good number of quizzes and Objective tests are organized to impart knowledge. FREE Sample Papers and Important questions are extracted, solved and discussed, ensuring that you are 100% prepared before any exam.

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